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By P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai

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Extra resources for A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering

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The colour of the solution at the end point is blue under normal conditions. 5. Note down the volume of EDTA added (V1). Observation Sample Trial Volume of no. no. … mg/L V (mL) Determination of Hardness 29 Results Sample no. or description Total hardness in mg/L as CaCO3 Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is degree of hardness? How will you classify water in terms of degree of hardness? What is pseudo-hardness? Explain the significance of determination of hardness of water in environmental engineering.

The phenanthroline method is the preferred standard procedure for the measurement of iron in water except when phosphate or heavy metal interferences are present. The method depends upon the fact that 1, 10-phenanthroline combine with Fe++ to form an orange-red complex. Its colour conforms to Beer’s law and is readily measured by visual or photometric comparison. Small concentration of iron can be most satisfactorily determined by colorimetric analysis. It is also based on Beer’s law. By measuring the intensities of transmitted and incident light through a coloured solution and knowing its optical density or transmission, we can prepare a calibration curve and subsequent concentration can be read.

025N) 3. 025N) 4. Starch solution Procedure 1. Measure from a burette 10mL of iodine into a 500 mL flask. 2. Add distilled water and bring the volume to 20 mL. 3. Add 2 mL of 6 N HCl. 4. Pipette 200 mL sample into the flask, discharging the sample under the surface of solution. 5. If the iodine colour disappears, add more iodine so that the colour remains. 6. Titrate with sodium thiosulphate solution, adding a few drops of starch solution, as the end point is approached and continuing until the blue colour disappears.

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