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By Alfredo Morabia (auth.), Alfredo Morabia (eds.)

Methods, simply as illnesses or scientists, have their very own historical past. it is necessary for scientists to concentrate on the genesis of the tools they use and of the context within which they have been developed.

A heritage of Epidemiologic tools and Concepts relies on a suite of contributions which seemed in "SPM foreign magazine of Public Health", beginning in January 2001. The contributions concentrate on the old emergence of present epidemiological tools and their relative significance at assorted closing dates, instead of on particular achievements of epidemiology in controlling plagues similar to cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid fever, or lung melanoma. The papers current the layout of potential and retrospective experiences, and the innovations of bias, confounding, and interplay. The compilation of articles is complemented through an creation and reviews via Prof. Alfredo Morabia which places them within the context of present epidemiological research.

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Source: Figure 1 of (Rothman, 1976). 29 Alfredo Morabia The same risk factor can be strong in one population if its complement causes are common, and weak in another if its complement causes are rare. The textbook by Rothman and Sander Greenland, epidemiologist at University of California, Los Angeles (Rothman and Greenland, 1998, pp. 9-11) provides a numerical example, which is very useful for illustrating these concepts. 7. Evolution of population thinking in epidemiology Let us at this point synthesize the lessons of the examples reviewed above.

23). The data reported by Louis can be revisited with modern analytical tools (Morabia, 1996). htm. We can compare the prevalence of early bleeding in the group of patients who died with those who survived. Or we can compare the death risk in those bled in the first four days after disease onset vs. those bled more than four days after disease onset. 07). Also, if patients bled later in the course of the disease had a better prognosis, because they had already passed the worst phase of the illness, the bias would have favored late bleeding.

Gums hemorrhaged and their tissue became weak and spongy. Teeth loosened and eating became difficult and painful. Stupor and death followed rapidly. 33 Alfredo Morabia Table 9- Description of treatment and outcomes in James Lind's 1747 experiment on 6 pairs of seamen suffering from scurvy. Source: (Lind, 1753). Experimental pairs Treatment for each pair member Qualitative outcome 1 "a quart of cider a day" "twenty five gouts of elixir vitriol three times a-day, upon an empty stomach, using a gargle strongly acidulated with it for their mouths" "two spoonfuls of vinegar three times a-day upon an empty stomach, having their gruels and their other food well acidulated with it, as also the gargle for their mouth" "improved" "mouth but not internal improvement" "half a pint of sea water every day, and sometimes more or less as it operated, by way of gentle physic" "no remarkable alteration (.

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