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Extra info for A history of Muslim philosophy: With short accounts of other disciplines and the modern renaissance in Muslim lands-Vol II

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97 Some pantheists who profess the doctrines of incarnation (ltulul), unification (ittilfad), or other closely related doctrine like "Unity of Existence," maintain that "existence" is one, though there are two degrees of it. It is (i) necessary in the Creator and (ii) contingent in the creation. To this group of pantheists ibn Taimiyyah assigns ibn 'Arabi, ibn Sab'in, ibn al-Farid, Tilimsani, etc. 98 Al-Qunawi (d. 673/1274) and his followers made a distinction between "the general" and "the particular" (al-itlaq w-al-ta'yin).

For Bergson, too, life is creative and evolutionary; however, he believes this creative evolutionary process to be without any goal. But how could one say that life evolves unless there in an implicit idea of a goal towards which it moves ? For Rumi God is the ground as well as the goal of all existence, and life everywhere is a goal-seeking activity. Bergson developed no concept of the self, nor is evolution for him a process of selfrealization. Rumi tells us why life is creative and evolutionary and defines for us the nature of the creative urge.

He calls his magnum opus the Mathnawi, the "Shop of Unity," wherein the diversities of life are harmonized and apparent contradictions transcended by creative unities. Nothing that is human or divine is alien to him. He expands with great force and conviction the original thesis of Islam, of the fundamental unity of all spiritual religions despite the contradictory dogmas that narrow theologies have formulated. The windows of his soul are wide open in all directions. Although a believing and practising Muslim, he is temperamentally a non-conformist for he realizes the secondary nature of the form in comparison with the spirit.

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