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A Social historical past of rainy Nursing in the US: From Breast to Bottle examines the intersection of clinical technological know-how, social thought, and cultural practices as they formed kin between rainy nurses, physicians, and households from the colonial interval throughout the 20th century. It explores how american citizens used rainy nursing to unravel boy or girl feeding difficulties, indicates why rainy nursing turned debatable as motherhood slowly grew to become medicalized, and elaborates how the improvement of clinical boy or girl feeding eradicated rainy nursing through the start of the 20 th century. Janet Golden's research contributes to our knowing of the cultural authority of scientific technology, the position of physicians in shaping baby rearing practices, the social development of motherhood, and the profound dilemmas of sophistication and tradition that performed out within the deepest area of the nursery.

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The continuum of demand ranged from need — arising from the death or illness of a mother - to choice. Similarly, the continuum of employers stretched from private families to public agencies. A geographic continuum existed as well; some wet nurses lived with their employers, whereas others took babies into their own homes. In each instance of wet nursing, the axes crossed at different points, like lines from a crudely drawn star. Social critics and physicians saw these individual arrangements as a constellation and characterized its boundaries and its luminosity at various historical moments.

373, n. 7. , 41 (1989): 27—48. 35 Nevertheless, it is safe to assume that maternal mortality rates ranged from a low of 6 per 1,000 births to a high of perhaps 20 per 1,000 in regions of endemic malaria. 36 Maternal morbidity as well as mortality created a demand for wet nurses, as colonial women suffered from anatomical, physical, and mental conditions that limited their ability to breast-feed their infants. Severe physical illnesses prevented women from taking an infant to the breast, whereas mental disorders and other conditions resulting in fatigue probably interfered with the psychophysiological phenomenon known as the "letdown reflex" - the ability to excrete milk.

PCA. 79 Philadelphia, Guardians of the Poor, Daily Occurrences, March 1792 to June 1793, June 12, 1792. PCA. 80 In 1789 the Guardians of the Poor recommended creating a foundling hospital, but it is unclear if such an institution was ever established. Alexander, Render Them Submissive, pp. 99, 117, and 210 n. 45. Wet nursing in colonial America 31 more risks but promised greater rewards than public employment. Ann Flint, a Philadelphia woman, accepted an offer of nine shillings a week to wet nurse the child of Alice Harper in 1768.

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