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By Nicholas Rescher

Contents: I. estate attribution and its modes — II. Essentialistic foundations — III. Individuation and the optimistic idea of attainable contributors — IV. The structure of attainable worlds and the matter of the trans-world identification of people — V. The systematization of quantified modal good judgment — VI. life conditions — VII. tendencies — VIII. legislation and lawfulness — IX. Contrary-to-fact suppositions and counterfactual conditionals — X. The doctrine of inner kin — XI. A conceptualistic metaphysic of possibilia

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1217–74): Born in Tuscany in 1217 or 1221, Bonaventure (John of Fidanza) studied in Paris as a Franciscan friar, and was influenced by his teacher (Alexander of Hales), Augustine, Neoplatonism more generally and his friendly rival and contemporary, Thomas Aquinas. This last influence was often in the direction of disagreement, for example, over the importance of Aristotle. Bonaventure also differed from Thomas in style, preferring a more mystical approach to his colleague’s more rationalistic one.

Underlying this process is the ultimately perfect coincidence of self-love and benevolent love. See deism; ethics; God, arguments for the existence of; theology, natural Further reading: Butler 1736 and 1900; Penelhum 1985 C Calvin, John (1509–64): A French Protestant theologian, Calvin, through his years of reform at Geneva, became the great systematiser of the Reformation while laying the foundations for the theology that would bear his name. While Calvin’s background was renaissance humanism, he emphasised the comprehensive effect of the fall upon the human will and mind: though humans were created with a sensus divinitatis designed to produce belief about God within us, its proper function had been corrupted by the fall, leaving humans in ignorance and rebellion.

Although it dates back to Plato (and the pre-Socratics) the first Christian use of it that had lasting impact was Thomas Aquinas’ deployment of it as the fifth of his five ways. Another very well-known form is that given in 1802 by William Paley, who drew the famous analogy between finding a watch on the heath and inferring a watch-designer on the one hand and finding order in nature and inferring a designer of nature on the other hand. Many sceptical philosophers of the analytical school think, however, that this argument was decisively rebutted by Hume in his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, published twenty-three years earlier.

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