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This monograph takes inventory of our present wisdom at the evolutionary ecology of infectious ailments, and units out the objectives for the administration of virulent pathogens. in the course of the textual content, the elemental thoughts and methods underlying the versions are conscientiously defined in a different sequence of built-in containers.
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Additional info for Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management
2). This approach to epidemiological processes dates back to Ronald Ross’s modeling of malaria at the beginning of the 20th century (Ross 1911; Kermack and McKendrick 1927; Macdonald 1952; see Heesterbeek and Dietz 1996 for a historical review). 1). 3. , Dietz 1975; Anderson 1982; Anderson and May 1982; Levin et al. 1982; May and Anderson 1983a; Frank 1996c). 3). 4). 5 discusses possible generalizations of our approach and concludes with ramifications for the goal of virulence management. 2 Virulence Depending on Transmission Modes A major interest in the evolutionary trade-off approach stems from considering different modes of disease transmission.
This outcome thus suggests specific options for virulence management: elimination of the transmission modes that are less dependent on host mobility should reduce virulence. In the case of diarrheal diseases this intervention would involve the provision of safe water supplies. As is discussed in Chapter 28, empirical evidence accords with this expectation. Acknowledgments Paul Ewald was supported by grants from Leonard X. Bosack and Bette M. Kruger Charitable Foundation and an Amherst College Faculty Research Award.
In microparasitic diseases, attention is usually focused on the dynamics of either a single pathogen (simple infection) or several related strains of the same pathogen (multiple infection). The majority of cross-sectional surveys of macroparasites in wildlife, however, show that, in general, more than one parasite species is present in any given host (Bush and Holmes 1986; Goater et al. 1987; Goater and Bush 1988; Dobson and Keymer 1990). The combination of demographic and epidemiological parameters conferring the highest competitive advantage to a particular macroparasitic species is discussed in Dobson and Roberts (1994) and Gatto and De Leo (1998).