By Stewart W. Clarke
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Extra resources for Aerosols and the Lung. Clinical and Experimental Aspects
These results are based on measurements taken only from vigorously beating cilia; when studying differences between normal and disease and between diseases objective rather than subjective criteria for measuring ciliary activity should be applied (Lopez-Vidriero and Clarke, 1982). 6 Transmission electron micrographs of a b n o r m a l a x o n e m e s of cilia in transverse section: (a) missing central microtubules ( x 66 666), (b) missing o n e central microtubule ( x 66 666) and (c and d) s u p e r n u m e r a r y o u t e r microtubules ( x 33 333, 66 666) Lung secretions in disease 43 Changes in the type of intracellular glycoprotein are c o m m o n to all diseases characterized by mucus hypersecretion (Jones and Reid, 1978).
T h e anatomical arrangement of the secretory tubules ensures that the secretion of the serous granules passes over that of the mucous. Both secretions pass into the collecting duct; it is here that ionic and water adjustments of mucus probably take place before it is discharged into the lumen. T h e morphological features of the serous and mucous cells of the gland are similar to their counterpart in the surface epithelium. Myoepithelial cells are found beneath the serous, mucous and collecting duct cells and resemble smooth muscle cells.
These structural changes associated with mucus discharge suggest that water, ions and small soluble rnacromolecules are probably released with the secretion from the granules. G a p junctions are rare. They are found only between secretory cells of the extrapulmonary airways. T h e location of gap junctions near the base of the cells seems to indicate that they may serve to connect secretory to basal cells. Submucosal glands Submucosal glands are found in airways with cartilage in the wall, they lie between the epithelium and plates of cartilage and between and occasionally external to the plates of cartilage (Jeffery and Reid, 1977).