By Olav Stokke
International relief has more and more turn into topic to political conditionality. within the Eighties a few associations made relief based upon the recipient nations' financial coverage reforms. industry liberalisation used to be the first device and goal. within the Nineties such conditionality was once introduced one step extra; relief used to be now associated with political reforms, affecting recipient nations' governing structures, requiring democracy, human rights and 'good governance'. This quantity appears at those advancements and considers the conditionality rules of a number of ecu reduction donors. Such rules also are thought of from recipient views, either from the 3rd international and Russia, and the difficulty is usually thought of from a historic standpoint.
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Most donors refer to the same basic policy components when defining ‘good governance’. The most systematic effort to explore the agenda and set the objectives has been made by the World Bank. This is not by coincidence; the Bank was in need of an explanation of the quite to this end: cuts in Indian defence spending have been demanded as a condition for the continuation of aid [Pedersen, 1993:102]. This condition is not entirely new; in the 1980s, several donors ended or reduced their aid to India because o f its nuclear programme.
IV. LEVELS OF IN TERVENTIO N AN D MAIN OBJECTIVES The roots of today’s conditionality (Section II) clearly demonstrate that different types of aid conditionality apply, that conditionality applies at several levels and that it may have quite different objec tives. It is also apparent that the current trend is towards increasing conditionality with an ever higher degree of political interference. Hovvever, donor countries have not been identical in their approach; whereas the major povvers have, directly or indirectly, pursued policies involving conditionality at a high level of political interven tion throughout the Aid Age, for others this represents a recent trend associated vvith the first and second generation conditionality of the late 1980s and 1990s.
In this dialogue, they would convey how important democracy was for development and progress: ‘In coun tries where the democratisation process does not move forward, the donors willingness to provide aid will be influenced’ [Nordic Ministers, 1990]. The United States linked its foreign aid to democracy and human rights perform ance in the mid-1970s. At the end of 1990, the US Agency for International Develop ment (USAID) followed this up with its democracy initiative, stating that USAID allocations to individual countries would take account of progress towards democracy.