By John Drabble
An financial background of Malaysia, c.1800-1990 , offers the 1st common background of the Malaysian economic system over the last centuries, together with a survey of the pre-colonial period. a distinct characteristic is that it integrates the old reports of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak as a case research within the onset of recent financial progress. specific recognition is paid to explaining Malaysia's sign luck in attaining a comparatively tender shift clear of the first commodity export economic system of the colonial interval to near-NIC prestige by means of 1990.
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Extra info for An Economic History of Malaysia, c. 1800–1990: The Transition to Modern Economic Growth
As noted in the previous section rice was grown both with irrigation (sawah) and without (ladang). Both types seem to have spread throughout Southeast Asia relatively slowly, the dates of origin in particular areas being uncertain. The most recent research concludes that in the northerly parts of the Malay Peninsula sawah cultivation was established in the major river valleys (Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang) by about the fourteenth century AD. In the southern parts (Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and much of Johor) expansion took longer due to the peat soils, brackish water and swampy terrain (Hill, 1977, 24–7).
During the ﬁfteenth century the main stimulus to international trade came from the market in China where population was recovering after the depredations of the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty. The main demand was for tin, pepper, spices and forest-products which prompted the increases in production described in the previous section. Merchants had to conduct dealings with middlemen who had contacts with producers located in the port hinterland, and in the interior of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and so on.
2 below). The loss of autonomy by indigenous rulers took longest in what became the Unfederated Malay States (UMS), which were in the north and northeast of the Peninsula, except for Johor in the south. Some underwent periods of unsettled internal conditions in the early nineteenth century. After invasion by Siam in 1821 Kedah experienced 20 years of direct rule from Bangkok against determined local resistance. There was widespread destruction of productive resources, and large numbers of people ﬂed, decreasing the population from about 50 000 to 21 000 (Dodge, 1980, Table 9).