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I ) Consequently i t « not to be taken for granted that Aristotle would always approve on philosophical grounds the results or implications of the particular methods of refutation suggested in the Topics; but the practical DIAERESIS, DEFINITION, AND DEMONSTRATION 19 nature of the treatise required that he give as examples theses and definitions which his students might in reahty have to confront (Topics 101 A 30-34; II b . (K r

Here the common element in Plato's and Xenocrates' definitions is attacked, although the topic could be employed against the former only by tacitly imputing to Plato what -was really a complete innovation on the part of Xenocrates, the " Cf E Hambruch, Lo/fscbe Regeln, pp 19-20, who connects the topical rule from inspection of the contrary (Topics 106 A 36, 123 B 1 ff ) with § 68 of the so-called AmipAreu 'Aptarorfrovt (Rose, Anstoteles Pseudepigrapbus, p. 695) The rule that two contraries must be themselves genera or of the same genus or m genera which are contraries (Topics 123 B 3-12, 153 A 33-36) occurs also in Categories 14 A 19-20 where iyaBSv and Kaic6v are given as genera that are subsumed m no higher genus; this Hambruch compares with the view of Plato's pupils that the final opposites of all Being are to be equated with good and evil.

This is quite in the manner of the Topics,—for the instance, too, is an Academic theory, although not Xenocratean. o»> he presumes the division found in Aiaiplirttt 'ApurroriXovs, § 64 (Anstoteles Pseudepigraphus, pp 693-694) where the species of Ovtirb Ja are WTIJVA, fyvBpa, irefd (cf Timneui 39 E 40 A where the "sub-generic" ideas included in 8 tcrif twor arr 1] aOpt-yw 9tjiv iiva%, 2] TtTtiviv, 3] trvlpov, 4] irt$6»). , where in § 2 p6»w^ « one of the four virtues and it alone is the virtue of the XtfyoattKov, in other words it alone of the virtues is knowledge.

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