By Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Lev S. Ivlev, Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varostos
This e-book offers the 1st complete research of the way aerosols shape within the surroundings via in situ methods in addition to through delivery from the outside (dust storms, seas spray, biogenic emissions, wooded area fires etc.). Such an research has been by way of the glory of either commentary information (various box observational experiments) and numerical modelling effects to evaluate weather affects of aerosols considering that those affects are the main major uncertainty in learning traditional and anthropogenic reasons of weather switch.
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Extra resources for Atmospheric aerosol properties
Therefore, it was decided to undertake several expeditions within the CAENEX programme over various surfaces: desert (CAENEX-70), steppe (CAENEX-71), industrial region (CAENEX-72), sea surface (CAENEX-73), and ®nally, tropical Atlantic Ocean (GATE radiation subprogramme) [1, 69]. Sec. 2 The Complete Radiation Experiment 27 When accomplishing each of these programmes, complex studies of speci®c features of radiative and aerosol characteristics of the atmosphere in these regions have been successfully carried out.
Cloud optical thickness), other conditions being equal (sun elevation, average water content, particles' size distribution or droplets' modal radius) under similar synoptic conditions. The main objective in processing the obtained material was to study the laws of variability of spectral re¯ection, transmission, and absorption of short-wave radiation by clouds. Let us consider some results of the complex measurements. 5 shows spectra of downward and upward radiation ¯uxes above cloud and beneath it, recorded from altitudes of 8,400 and 200 m, respectively, at a sun elevation hÂ 558.
In the case considered, both upward and downward short-wave radiation ¯uxes grow with altitude. Naturally, the amplitude of the vertical variation of ¯uxes grows when the wavelength decreases. In the pure scattering atmosphere the net ¯ux B F5 p F4 p should remain constant. 4), like the ¯uxes, grows with altitude, being greater the shorter the wavelength. The depth of absorption bands in F5 p decreases, and in F4 p increases with altitude. Naturally, in the case of the net ¯ux B , the contours of the bands are similar to those for F5 p at p 3 1; 000 hPa and F4 p at p 3 0.