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When he w rote his D octoral thesis in 1841, Marx was still an idealist. Yet he declared his philosophical credo to be m ilitant atheism, the essence o f w hich, he believed, was to fight against all earthly and heavenly gods, against all hum iliation of the hum an personality. In 1842, Marx becam e the editor o f th e progressive Rheinische Z eitung, w hich under his leadership developed into a revolutionary organ. In his articles for this paper he defended the peasants oppressed b y th e landow ners, and th e wine-growers who were being ruined b y th e ta x policy o f the Prussian state, advocated freedom o f the press, civil rights, and so on.

Lenin, The Three Sources a nd Three C o m p o n en t Parts o f Marxism , Vol. 19, p. 23. 44. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF MARXIST-LENINIST PHILOSOPHY from Hegel’s philosophy. But unlike the o th er Young Hegelians (who represented th e liberal bourgeoisie), Marx and Engels even in their very first w orks w rote as revolutionary dem ocrats, defenders of the interests o f th e mass o f th e working people. In creating their philosophy Marx and Engels moved decisively away from the positions o f idealistic revolutionary dem ocracy to positions of m aterialism and com m unism .

Like any system o f scientific knowledge th e philosophy o f M arxism regards its scientific theses only as approxim ate reflections of reality, as a - u n ity o f relative and absolute tru th . Marx and Engels put an end to the opposition betw een philos­ ophy and practical activity, particularly th e activity expressed in th e pro letariat’s m ovem ent for liberation. Philosophy, they argued, does not exist in an abstract elem ent o f pure thought, any m ore than such “p u re ” thought exists independent o f reality; from now on philosophy’s road to life lies in th e revolutionary practice o f the proletariat, o f all working masses.

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