By Salvatore J. Salamone
Popular specialists clarify the pharmacology and metabolism of benzodiazepines (LDB) and g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and supply robust and powerful methodologies that might allow higher detection of those medicines in numerous physique fluids, in addition to in hair. The options comprise hugely delicate immunoassay detection of LDBs, the detection of Rohypnol® and different LDBs by way of mass spectrometry, and the ultrasensitive detection of GHB. cutting-edge and hugely sensible, Benzodiazepines and GHB: Detection and Pharmacology bargains toxicologists, forensic scientists, and medical chemists trendy most desirable tools for detecting those extensively abused medications which are occasionally came upon linked to felony acts.
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Additional info for Benzodiazepines and GHB: Detection and Pharmacology (Forensic Science and Medicine)
81 ng/mL in urine. 7-Acetamido-3-hydroxyflunitrazepam has very weak UV absorption at 240 nm; a more sensitive wavelength has to be selected for quantitation, that is, 248 nm. Recent advances in interfacing of HPLC systems with mass spectrometers has provided a new dimension to therapeutic drug monitoring and foren- Analysis of Flunitrazepam and Metabolites 43 sic applications. The high sensitivity and specificity of mass spectrometry and the separation power of HPLC have made it possible to detect drugs such as flunitrazepam and its metabolites in biological specimens at very low concentrations.
Internal Standards The highest precision and accuracy for quantitative chromatographic analysis can be obtained by using internal standard calibration because the uncertainty associated with the injection volume is minimized. For the HPLC procedures 38 ElSohly and Feng using ultraviolet (UV), diode array detection (DAD), or fluorescence detectors, the internal standards are differentiated from the analytes by retention time. Therefore, structurally similar benzodiazepines have been used as internal standards, because these compounds are sufficiently separated from the flunitrazepam and/or metabolites and yet close enough to the peaks of interest.
Clin. Chem. 31, 152. 24. , Schwenzer, K. , et al. Serum and urine concentrations of flunitrazepam and metabolites, after a single oral dose, by immunoassay and GC-MS. In press. Analysis of Flunitrazepam and Metabolites 33 Chapter 3 Analysis of Flunitrazepam and Its Metabolites in Biological Specimens Mahmoud A. ElSohly and Shixia Feng 1. INTRODUCTION Flunitrazepam, 5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-7-nitro-2H-1,4benzodiazepin-2-one, also commonly known as Rohypnol or “roofies,” belongs to a highly potent group of benzodiazepines used mainly as hypnotic, sleeping aid, or preanesthetic agents (1–3).