By David, Bruno; Saucède, Thomas
The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is tremendous, particularly, its historical past, its isolation, and weather, making it a distinct "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, model and ecology. Its evolutionary historical past of version offer a wealth of data at the functioning of the biosphere and its power.
The Southern Ocean is the results of a historical past of approximately forty million years marked by way of the hole of the Straits south of Australia and South the USA and severe cooling. The violence of its climate, its very low temperatures, the formation of big ice-covered components, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean an international aside.
This booklet discusses the implications for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the area, together with endemism, slowed metabolism, toughness, gigantism, and its larval levels; positive aspects which make this massive ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive methods, scalable to paintings in severe environmental stipulations. this present day, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is dealing with international switch, relatively in nearby warming and acidification of water our bodies. not able emigrate extra south, how will she cope, if any, to viewers from the North?
- Designed for curious readers to find the large ocean surrounding the main remoted and such a lot inhospitable continent at the planet.
- Describes the Southern Ocean dealing with biodiversification because of worldwide change
- Authored through scientists with event of expeditions to the Southern Ocean
Read Online or Download Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean PDF
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Extra resources for Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean
Predators in Antarctic benthic communities are characterized by various feeding behaviors, from carnivorous to scavenging, like ribbon worms or buccinoid gastropods, which thus have a wider choice at their disposal, between live or dead prey. The main benthic predators that feed on fixed or relatively static prey are themselves not very mobile. Amongst them are echinoderms, such as the Astrotoma agassizii brittle star species and the Labidiaster annulatus starfish, as well as hydrozoan colonies, like Tubularia ralphii.
There, it cools down, sometimes increasing in salt content, becomes denser and sinks to the bottom of the ocean. This very cold and salty bottom water then circulates north (mainly from the Weddell Sea) to feed into the Antarctic Bottom Water, and then into the deep water masses of other oceans. The complex interplay between wind, water and ice thus generates movements with contrasting effects between surface and deep water masses. By circulating westward around the Antarctic continent south of the Antarctic Divergence, but eastward to the north of this area, Antarctic Surface Water tends to isolate the continent and its coastal waters from the effects of other oceans by limiting north– south exchanges.
Deep ocean water temperatures fell by several degrees. In the Southern Ocean, this episode was marked by peak productivity of siliceous plankton in surface waters [KNO 07]. The ice sheet developed significantly over the entire Antarctic continent. The ice sheet was more extensive in East Antarctica, and scientists have estimated that it might have extended further than it does today [PAS 11]. A thick ice sheet also formed in the west. It was at this time that the Andean glaciers began to develop in Patagonia and the glaciation of Greenland first began.