By Elizabeth Gosling
Finished textual content covers all significant points of the invertebrate category bivalve molluscs. Chapters hide morphology, ecology, feeding, replica, payment and recruitment, progress, body structure, fisheries, aquaculture, genetics, ailments and parasites, and public future health concerns. essentially for undergraduate scholars, yet valuable as a reference for postgraduate scholars and execs.
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Extra resources for Bivalve Molluscs: Biology, Ecology and Culture
Some water is expelled from the mantle cavity, which helps to loosen the sand and facilitates the movement of the foot. The remaining water in the mantle cavity and the haemolymph act as a hydrostatic skeleton. Closure of the shell valves serves to increase the 30 Morphology of Bivalves pressure of these two fluids. Haemolymph from the body is forced down into the foot, causing the foot to swell and anchor into the substrate. • Once the foot is anchored pedal retractor muscles contract, pulling the shell downwards into the loosened sand (Fig.
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The middle fold is primarily sensory having assumed this role in the evolution of the bivalve form from the ancestral mollusc – a change that involved the loss of the head and associated sense organs. The middle fold is frequently drawn out into short tentacles that contain tactile and chemoreceptor cells. Both of these cell types play an important role in predator detection and avoidance. Ocelli, which are sensitive to sudden changes in light intensity, may also be present on the middle fold. These ‘eyes’ can be simple invaginations lined with pigment cells and filled with a mucoid substance or ‘lens’.