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Next page > < previous page page_33 next page > Page 33 icy, though it had twice had to be put aside until internal disputes were settled in the civil wars that had caused the first and second hiatuses. Now under 'Umar II, however, the third lull in the Muslim expansion occurred, this one more by choice than by direct necessity. This showed the birth of defensive thinking among the Muslims and revealed important policy disagreements for the first time at the highest levels of the caliphal administration.

Next page > < previous page page_40 next page > Page 40 generally similar to that described by the tenth-century geographer al-Muqaddasi * (d. 375/985). According to him, at the highest level was the iqlim* or region, which had a misr for its capital. He then identifies fourteen iqlims* (their capitals are given in parentheses): Arabia (Makka and Zabid*), Iraq (Baghdad), al-Jazira* (al-Mawsil*), Syria (Damascus), Egypt (al-Fustat*), North Africa and Spain (al-Qayrawan* and Qurtuba*), Khurasan* (Naysabur* and Samarqand), al-Daylam (Barwan*), Armenia and Adharbayjan* (Ardabil*), al-Jibal* (Hamadhan*), Khuzistan* (alAhwaz*), Fars* (Shiraz*), Kirman* (al-Sirjan*), and Sind (al-Mansura*).

128 The sources record that 'Umar II's desire to withdraw from Spain and Transoxiana was motivated by fears of what the enemies, presumably the Byzantines and the Turks, might do. But why should this have worried the caliphate at the very zenith of its expansion? 132 If the defeat was as < previous page page_33 If you like this book, buy it! E. if the Greeks cut his bridges at the Hellespont. In both cases, it was an overreaction caused by defeat, but nevertheless, the fears were real. 'Umar may have thought of withdrawing troops from Transoxiana to defend the Umayyads' home province, metropolitan Syria.

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