By Johannes Bronkhorst
The current quantity maintains my efforts to appreciate facets of Indian philosophy by means of picking out the issues which faced the thinkers involved. within the ebook Langage et realitie ... I studied the implications which the assumption within the shut courting among language and truth had for doctrinal improvement of Indian philosophy. the current quantity concentrates at the outcomes of the assumption in karma and rebirth.--Preface. Paperback.
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Additional info for Karma and Teleology: A problem and its solutions in Indian philosophy
96 Cp. Frauwallner, 1953: 404-06. 97 YD p. 191 l. 33-35 (ed. Wezler and Motegi); p. 94 l. 25-26 (ed. Pandeya): tatra ßrutism®tivihitånåµ karmaˆåm anu∑†hånåd buddhyavastha˙ sattvåvayava åßayabhËto dharma ity ucyate. 44 KARMA AND TELEOLOGY Adharma is its opposite:98 "It has been stated that dharma is part of [the constituent called] sattva which has become a disposition as a result of carrying out that which has been enjoined in the ßåstra. " This relationship between dharma / adharma and buddhi leads to no major difficulty as long as we consider karmic retribution within one world period.
This impression of earliest Vaiße∑ika is confirmed by a passage in the Nyåya Bhå∑ya, which presents and then rejects the position according to which the body is formed under the influence of ad®∑†a. This position is rejected with the argument that it is karma which forms the body. The rejected point of view appears to be, or be close to, the one held by earliest Vaiße∑ika.  The passage concerned reads:65 "Some hold the following opinion: ‘ad®∑†a is a special quality of the atoms which is the cause of movement.
How can Vaiße∑ika explain the mechanism of karmic retribution without resorting to teleology? The ‘behaviorist’ approach characteristic of Vaiße∑ika psychology is of no use here. It is not possible to maintain that each individual soul is ‘conditioned’ to seek agreeable or disagreeable experiences that correspond to the presence of dharma and adharma in it. We have seen that dharma and adharma were accepted to work directly on the material world, not — or not only — through the agency of living beings.