By Ramon G. Canto, George R. Robinson II (auth.), Herman Chmel, Mauro Bendinelli, Herman Friedman (eds.)
Presenting the elemental innovations and medical implications of breathing an infection, with detailed emphasis at the function of the immune approach, the field's best researchers give a contribution designated chapters on many of the significant pathogenic and opportunistic micro organism, fungi, and viruses. Their paintings will stimulate new learn by way of microbiologists and immunologists, train clinicians the interplay among microorganisms and the host, and supply health and wellbeing pros with details essential to assessment public healthiness procedures.
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Extra resources for Pulmonary Infections and Immunity
And Hsu, L. , 1984, Characterization of the extracellular bactericidal factors of rat alveolar lining material,] Glin. Invest. 74:1269-1279. 41. , Musher, 0. , and Lawrence, E. , 1986, Human alveolar lining material and antibacterial defenses, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 133:136-140. 42. Sherman, M. , D~mbola, J. , Aeberhard, E. , and Barrett, C. , 1988, Surfactant therapy of newborn rabbits impairs macrophage bactericidal activity,] Appl. Physiol. 56: 137-145. 43. Speer, C. , 1991, Phagocytic functions and tumor necrosis factor secretion of human monocytes exposed to natural porcine surfactant (Curosurf), Pediatr Res.
Antigen-Presenting Cells Many antigenic substances are inhaled and must be removed and inactivated by clearance mechanisms in the airways or they may persist and possibly initiate an immune response. For this immune response to develop, the antigen must be captured, processed, and then presented to a compatible T lymphocyte by an antigen-presenting cell (APC). A number of cells are capable of presenting antigens to the T lymphocytes, including macrophages, Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and B lymphocytes.
This is done through the differentiation of T cells into T4 helper (CD4) cells and T4 suppressor (CD8) cells as described below. T cells are also involved in Type IV delayed hypersensitivity reactions. T cells require the presence of antigens on the cell surface of an antigenpresenting cell to be recognized. Since these antigen-presenting cells must be encoded within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), differentiation of 10 RAMON G. CANTO et al. self from nonself is enhanced. The T cells have specific receptors (TCR) which actually find the antigens.