Download Queen Victorias Enemies (1) by Ian Knight PDF

By Ian Knight

While Queen Victoria acceded to the British throne in 1837, British troops had lately concluded a struggle in southern Africa opposed to the Xhosa humans, and the seeds have been already sown for a conflict with the Boers. whilst she died in January 1901 Britain was once battling the Boers in a single of the longest and most costly of the imperial colonial wars.

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Extra resources for Queen Victorias Enemies (1)

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In 1985, conflicting interpretations of the true colonial borders caused a five-day war between Mali and Burkina Faso over a contested territory known as the Agacher Strip. The following year, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the dispute, using colonial survey maps to define the border. Tanzania’s attack on Idi Amin’s government in Uganda in 1978–79 followed his decision to occupy the Kagera Salient. Amin claimed antigovernment rebels used it as a refuge from which to attack his regime.

This ideology also glossed over differences in the ethnic and social identities of rebel leaderships (such as mestic¸os in Angola and Guinea and university-educated exiles from Rhodesia and South 26 This theme is developed in Colin Leys and John Saul, Namibia’s Liberation Struggle: The Two-Edged Sword (London: James Currey, 1995). 27 This is not to say that rebel leaders were personally cynical in their ideological pronouncements, although UNITA’s Jonas Savimbi moved fairly readily from a Maoist perspective to an anticommunist stance once US support appeared attainable.

Governments in newly independent states feared that such a precedent could lead to the breakup and absorption of their own state into another or legitimate the efforts of groups to split off to form their own country. Policy makers were in positions to deny militarily successful rebels the prerogatives that came with the status of sovereignty. Without diplomatic recognition, such rebels would experience great difficulty getting aid from abroad, would be ineligible for loans from the IMF or World Bank, would be denied a seat in the UN, and would likely face rival rebels who would receive aid from abroad under the condition that they accept existing borders.

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