By G. Causey Whittow
Sturkie's Avian body structure is the vintage accomplished unmarried quantity at the body structure of household in addition to wild birds. The 5th version is carefully revised and up to date, and contains new chapters at the body structure of incubation and progress. Chapters at the frightened approach and sensory organs were drastically elevated because of the many contemporary advances within the box. The textual content additionally covers the body structure of flight, copy in either female and male birds, and the immunophysiology of birds. The 5th variation, just like the past versions, is a needs to for someone drawn to comparative body structure, chook technology, veterinary medication, and comparable fields. This quantity establishes the normal in the event you desire the newest and top info at the body structure of birds. Key positive factors* completely up-to-date and revised* insurance of either family and wild birds* New higher structure* simply complete, unmarried quantity dedicated to birds
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Additional info for Sturkie's Avian Physiology, Fifth Edition
B. Electrophysiology Neurons in the central auditory pathway have been characterized with regard to frequency (tuning curves), intensity, phase, and response to monaural or binaural stimulation. Binaural stimulation may be free field stimulation or dichotic stimulation with independent variations of intensity and phase at both ears. Topographic distribution of CFs within a nucleus indicates tonotopic organization. The avian cochlear nuclei include the nucleus angularis, nucleus magnocellularis, and nucleus laminaris, which is, however, a third-order nucleus probably ho- 30 Reinhold Necker FIGURE 11 Time pathway (left side) and intensity pathway (right side) in the barn owl.
There is also a tonotopic organization which is, however, from rostral (low frequencies) to caudal (high frequencies). The CFs range from 2 to 10 kHz, most being 5 to 10 kHz. 4. The Midbrain Auditory Nucleus The MLD has been investigated in different species. Although it is not clear whether there is a subdivision into an external nucleus (ICx) in other birds than owls, it seems that the main or central nucleus has a similar function in all birds. Neurons are spontaneously active and the most common response is an excitation from contralateral and an inhibition from ipsilateral (EI type, Figure 14).
A. R. Liss, New York. , and Dallos, P. (1976). Re-examination of avian cochlear potentials. Nature 262, 599–601. Rubel, E. , and Parks, T. N. (1975). Organization and development of brain stem auditory nuclei of the chicken: Tonotopic organization of N. magnocellularis and N. laminaris. J. Comp. Neurol. 164, 411–434. , and Do¨rrscheidt, G. J. (1986). Tonotopic organization of auditory forebrain in a songbird, the European starling. J. Comp. Physiol. A 158, 639–646. , and Manley, G. A. (1991). The potassium concentration in the cochlear fluids of the embryonic and posthatching chick.