By Karl Herholz, Daniela Perani, Chris Morris
The single consultant to concentration totally on present molecular equipment of prognosis and early degree review, this reference offers the newest concepts and applied sciences for dementia id and evaluate, together with neuropathological techniques, neuropsychological assessments, biomarkers, CT, MRI, practical MRI, puppy, and SPECT. delivering functional care and exam directions, every one bankruptcy offers findings which are relatively correct for the review of issues resembling Alzheimer's sickness, dementia with Lewy our bodies, vascular dementia, and fronto-temporal dementia.
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The single consultant to concentration totally on present molecular equipment of prognosis and early degree review, this reference provides the most recent suggestions and applied sciences for dementia id and evaluate, together with neuropathological suggestions, neuropsychological exams, biomarkers, CT, MRI, sensible MRI, puppy, and SPECT.
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Extra info for The Dementias: Early Diagnosis and Evaluation
The sensitivity of a test decreases as a function of the proportion of cases of dementia, which the test is unable to classify (false negatives). , patients erroneously classified as demented. , specificity. Specificity reflects the proportion of non-demented subjects, which are correctly classified by the test. At present, the majority of diagnostic tests for dementia show very good sensitivity and specificity in the moderate stage of the disease, but not in the early stage. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (5), for example, shows a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 92% for scores of 23–24 (6).
In the future, it may be possible with molecular imaging to design therapies for dementing diseases based upon individual biochemical profiles and disease staging, just as it is now starting to be used in clinical oncology (89,90). SUMMARY The evaluation of dementia is challenging, but worthwhile. Our ability to determine the cause of dementia has improved, but much remains to be done. There are many opportunities to refine our current methods at critical and difficult 26 Foster diagnostic decision points.
This approach is attractive for its simplicity and practicality, but it ignores the reality of a complex situation. Some individuals with MCI, and up to 5% to 10% of individuals with CIND, are found to revert to normal on reexamination (19). Thus, there would be many serious diagnostic errors with potential adverse consequences to patients and families if everyone classified as MCI or CIND were presumed to have prodromal dementia. The preferable alternative is to indicate the increased risk of a dementing disease and recommend close observation (36).